Here is a list of the internet resources that I found helpful when I was teaching from this book.

General reference:

Here is an excellent glossary to support all your geology studies.

Chapter 1: Depths of the Earth

Earth cutaway
Click on the image or
go to black and white image page
for a complete list of images
to print and color. Look for
Earth Cutaway.

Another cut
The Encyclopedia Britannica
has another cut image.
This one is a pie slice, but it has more detail.

Mantle Convection
Click on the image or
go to black and white image page
for a complete list of images
to print and color.
Look for Mantle Convection.

Convection Effects
Jason Salter has a creative commons site with a wonderful mantle convection image and some suggestions that will help you to visualize this complex action.

Origin of the Solar system
The origin of the solar system seems to have been quite violent. We can know about this event, so distant in time, because there are isotopes left over from those days. Space Daily has an article about it.

Chapter 2:
Crossing the Ocean
Here's a black and white
of the land forms under the ocean.
Click on the image; then
print and color it yourself.
This will help you recognize
these waterside landforms.

Crossing the Continent
Here's a black and white
of the land forms that may underlie
a continent.
Click and print; then color.
You will learn more by coloring
than by studying others' work.

Plate Subduction and Continental Override
For a sophisticated discussion of subduction, this site by C.P. Conrad and C. Lithgow-Bertelloni is very helpful. It is well illustrated and provides a detailed analysis of the stresses and motions involved. Challenging, but not out of reach if you have a general understanding of subduction and some familiarity with the crustal plates.

Chapter 3: Igneous Rock

Digital Tectonic Activity Map
This map from NASA is included at the end of chapter 3. Click on the image to enlarge it, then click again with the "magnifier". (Your cursor will show up on the map as a magnifying glass; go to whichever part of the map interests you and click again.) This map shows volcanic and earthquake activity worldwide, along with calculated tectonic plate motions. The digital age has certainly given us a new generation of fascinating maps.

Black and white images
Go to the black and white image page
for an image of igneous formations.

Introduction to Igneous Rocks
Lynne S. Fichter of James Madison University in Virginia has composed a good introduction to igneous rocks. and an elementary classification chart with images instead of words. If you are ready for a lot more information, click around the whole site, but don't let yourself get overwhelmed and confused by the abundance of information. Take it slowly.

Volcano World
This is an altogether delightful site for all sorts of information about volcanoes. It has links to anything you could wonder about from basic "how they work" to lists of volcanoes and information about the most recent eruptions. Some of the material is elementary; some is fairly sophisticated.

Black Hills including batholith
The geology of western South Dakota includes a batholith. Here is a general description of SD geology, which gradually moves into a discussion of the batholith. Figure 2 from 1880 is particularly striking. Go to Google Earth, look for the Black Hills of South Dakota, and compare the satellite image with the drawing. Actually, the drawing makes the structure clearer, but the photograph is, of course, a wonder.

Harney Peak Batholith
Here is a second site focusing on the Harney Peak batholith. This is the granite from which the four presidents' faces are carved in the Black Hills region of South Dakota.

Chapter 4: Sedimentary Rocks

Layers upon Layers
Jason Salter has a wonderful image of sedimentary rock here, and in a series of related pages, he explains how sedimentation works and offers (classroom) exercises.

Sedimentary Rock Lab
For a clear description of sedimentary rocks, this site has high school level text with an expanded vocabulary, good illustrations in full color, and clear descriptions of various qualities of rock types.
There are also links to a chart and to exercises (answers not given.)
Very thorough and clear if you want to go further with sedimentary rocks and their identification.

White Cliffs of Dover
Here are two images of these famous limestone cliffs:
One from the Encyclopedia Britannica
One from a tourist page
See the coccolith formations section of the chapter 11 support (below) for another image.

Chapter 5: Metamorphic Rocks

Key to Metamorphic rocks
Lynne S. Fichter of James Madison University in Virginia has composed a clear key to the identification of metamorphic rocks.
His explanations of metamorphism may also be useful. They are not intended for the elementary student (they are written for the elementary teacher) and may be confusing as a first step. Nevertheless, it is a nice site, without ads, and the explanations of regional (Barrovian) and contact metamorphism, found halfway down the page, are particularly worthwhile.

Rainbow Gneiss
Rainbow Gneiss is one of the prettiest forms of gneiss to be found. Its location along the Minnesota River suggests that this river is flowing in a fault zone.

Chapter 6: Weather and Weight

Desert Soil Profile
This soil profile is taken from northern Egypt. The total website has many good images of desert environments and a few other soil profiles.

Chernozem
This image of grassland soil is provided by the Encyclopedia Britannica. You can see the thick rich topsoil and the lower soil of a lighter color, not as fully penetrated by the root system.

Chapter 7: Rivers and Rain

Amazon River
Here is the report on how the Amazon River once flowed westwards. Inevitably, as a news report, you must put up with an ad on the page, but it's very interesting.
And here is an interesting sidelight about stingrays that will help you understand how we can reason about events so remote in time as this backwards flow. Also news with ads.

Chapter 8: Waves and Seas

St. Lawrence Seaway
Here is a clear image of the St. Lawrence River in relation to the Great Lakes.
And this is how it forms a vast estuary, the Gulf of St. Lawrence before it empties into the Atlantic Ocean.
Wikipedia has perhaps a more dramatic image. Be sure you follow the story to the lower half of the page where you get an underwater view of the bed of the gulf.
Here's another underbed view of the Gulf of St. Lawrence, taken from the Canadian Fisheries action page, an environmental management site.

Chapter 9: Winter and Wind

Barchan Dunes
The website mentioned for chapter six also has a wonderful set of images of a barchan dune. Here's one such dune. You may need to go to the main site and scroll more than 3/4 of the way down the page to understand this single image. It seems artificial, but is it not!

Sleeping Bear Dunes
For an interesting discussion of modern (ongoing) dune formation, you might enjoy looking at Sleeping Bear Dunes in Michigan. If you are mystified about the relationship between glaciers (cold and wet) and deserts (hot and dry) this would be a location to study.

Louis Agassiz biography
Only an Amazon link is currently available, but Tiner's book about explorer Louis Agassiz is fascinating. Written at middle school reading level, is a light and easy read, but also gripping a drama. I really enjoyed it.

Chapter 10: Change over Time

Potassium-Argon Dating
For an explanation of potassium-argon dating, this website, next in sequence with the one listed below, is excellent: clearly written and well illustrated with little movie clips. It also explains the limits and cautions of the system.

Radiocarbon Dating
For an explanation of radiocarbon dating, try this website. It is clearly explained, and the little movie clips are well composed. The limits of radiocarbon dating are also explained, and you can see that it is not very useful for most geology, as it does not give good dates even work for things that are one million years old. Geological events related to the ice ages can be dated with this system, however.

Samarium-Neodymium dating
The Wikipedia article on this very sophisticated method of dating may be of interest to an advanced student. The process is also described by John McPhee in Annals of the Former World.

Chapter 11: Williston Basin

Glenn Morton's story
This is the story of Glenn Morton's decision to abandon young earth creationism in favor of the data he saw as a geologist. It explains why he wrote the description of the Williston Basin on which chapter 11 is based.

Spearfish Canyon
Many of the formations of the Williston Basin in North Dakota extend into South Dakota. You might find it interesting to read this description of Spearfish Canyon and notice the formations that you encounter in both places.

Cocolith formations
Here is a beautiful image of the White Cliffs of Dover  See the support links for chapter four, for other Dover images.

Chapter 12: Biographies

The Dragon of Lind
OK, here is the Lindworm, also known as the Klagenfurt dragon. Odd to see him as a fountain, while legend makes him spout fire!

Nicholas Steno
Just a reminder that the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913 is online in its completeness. It's still a good resource. Here's its biography of Nicholas Steno. Its article on geography has more information about the great Danish scientist who has been canonized; scroll about 2/3 of the way down to find him.



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Updated Aug 11, 2008
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